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This article reviews the context allowing non-state actors to pursue WMD capacity. Capacities, motivations and indicators are briefly addressed. Indirect CBRN threat could directly ensue on Homeland operations, stressing the importance of international cooperation to counter the threat. Finally, solutions to strengthen nonproliferation regimes are proposed and policy recommendations are formulated. This paper has been written in a series of Focus Papers comprising other proliferation issues as well as a research paper in the same field of research.