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Military applications that could result from advances in nanotechnology (NT) and converging technologies (CT) have been rarely discussed by scholars and political-military planners. Though NT holds great promises, it also poses grave risks for international security and future military balances. The objective of the present paper is twofold. First, it intends to examine how NT will give an edge to the militaries of the most advanced industrial societies. Second, it looks at the security challenges the international community will have to cope with as regards to the disruptive technologies NT and CT could give to hostile nations and, to a lesser extent, to non-state actors.