Download                           Read  
Since 1998 and, maybe, against all odds, the EU has clearly succeeded in defining its own Security and Defence Policy. Today, the picture is clear: with more than 20 military operations and/or civil missions achieved, the EU has clearly become a security actor of first rank. The new Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) has developed genuine institutions and decisions procedures in order to launch and monitor complex operations on distant theatres. This is not to say that shortcomings do not exist. Lessons learned from past military operations (especially in the context of ARTEMIS in 2003 and EUFOR Tchad/RCA between 2008 and 2009) have clearly shown the limits of the conceptual frameworks prevailing during EU missions.