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Africa was not free from Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in the past. Recent efforts have realized a Nuclear Weapon-Free-Zone on the continent, and started to dismantle chemical stockpiles and biological programs. The future shortage in fossil fuel energy supplies, combined with increasing demand on the continent, will induce the use of nuclear powered plants for domestic energy supply. The available resources and the interest of foreign Nations in these resources will put a burden on the international community to strive for a comprehensive approach of the nuclear fuel cycle management. This will allow the African continent to hold indigenous mining capacity while avoiding to become a repository for Western spent nuclear fuel.